Clinical Trials Experience

Study Looks to Improve Performance of the World’s Toughest Triathletes.

The main fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); after intense exercise, their levels can be altered, thus modifying the body's immune function.

Aker BioMarine, Pure Science Triathlon team and Norseman have pioneered a study that examines the effects of krill oil omega-3s on athletic performance and recovery.

The Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon is considered the ultimate triathlon in the world. Racing through some of the most beautiful landscapes in Norway, those who are able to finish at the rocky peak of Gaustatoppen (located at 1,850m above sea level) can say that they travelled one of the toughest full distance triathlon on planet earth. And in addition to the grueling physical aspect of the race, the weather can range from beautiful and sunny to a blasting wind and blizzards, sometimes all in one day.

Unmatched by other extreme events due to its difficult and punishing severity, the annual ‘fjord to peak’ Norseman Xtreme Triathlon provides the ideal test with which to gauge just how important a role omega-3s can play in ultimate performance.

Omega-3s are some of the most important nutrients that our bodies need. They are essential for maintaining and supporting cardiovascular, brain, eye and joint health. They are also important for sports endurance and recovery, which is why Aker BioMarine has set out to explore the effects that krill oil has on Norseman athletes and Team Pure Science.

Part professionally run triathlon team, part clinical field study, Team Pure Science is made-up of a diverse group. Elite level professionals, such as 2016 Norseman winner Kari Flottorp Lingsom and former World Ironman Champion under 24 Hans Christian Tungesvik are paired up for this study in addition to dedicated amateurs.

Study leader, Dr. Andreas Berg Storsve, Director R&D at Aker BioMarine, explains the background behind this unique research project.

“We know that high-intensity training has an impact on immune function and inflammation, making athletes especially vulnerable to illness and infections. This has a direct impact on the athletes’ physical recovery and performance.”

“In order to thoroughly research the effects of omega-3 DHA and EPA in regards to maximal exercise, we didn’t have to look far. Norseman athletes are some of the strongest competitors in the world. The fact that these incredible athletes are meticulous in their training, routines and diet, makes them the perfect research subjects.”

2016 Norseman winner Kari Flottorp Lingsom outlines the extreme training demands of the race, “Preparing for the Norseman is a very intense period. It is not just a four-week gig. It is more like eight, nine months with two to four hard-core workouts a day.”

Omega-3s, the secret weapon for ultimate performance
Conducting a pilot during Norseman 2017, Dr. Storsve and his team used Omega-3 Index testing before and after the race, finding that in general, the athletes experienced a severe drop in DHA levels in the five weeks after completing the contest. The good news, however, was that supplementation with a high dose (4 grams a day) of krill oil restored the DHA drop and significantly increased the athletes’ Omega-3 Index.

“Pilot data from the 2017 Norseman study clearly shows a drop in omega-3 levels following high-intensity exercise. This is important because we found that higher omega-3 levels were associated with less illness during training and better performance during the race, especially during the cycling leg. We also found that athletes with higher omega-3 levels recovered faster after the race,” Dr. Storsve explains.

Phospholipids – jumpstart towards recovery
“Phospholipid-bound omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil, particularly DHA and EPA, are highly anti-inflammatory and have been shown to strengthen markers of immune function following maximal exercise,” says Dr. Storsve. “Krill oil consumption may therefore help to reduce the risk of infection and circumvent training disruptions in athletes.”

Unlike traditional sources of omega-3s such as fish oil, the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids found in Antarctic krill are in phospholipid, rather than triglyceride form. A key distinction from the rest, omega-3 phospholipids are delivered much more effectively to tissues and cells than triglycerides and play a vital role in keeping membranes functioning.

This is essential for the team’s elite athletes like former World Ironman under 24 Champion Hans Christian Tungesvik.

“To perform at the maximum level, I need to give my body the nutrients that it needs, particularly to avoid injury and illness, because that enables me to get the consistent training I need for a race like Norseman.”


  1. Lemaitre RN, King IB, Mozaffarian D, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Siscovick DS. n-3 acidi grassi polinsaturi, cardiopatia ischemica fatale e infarto miocardico non fatale negli anziani: lo studio cardiovascolare sulla salute. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003; 77: 319-25. PMID: 12540389
  2. Nettleton JA, acidi grassi polinsaturi Katz R. n-3 a catena lunga nel diabete di tipo 2: una review. Journal of American Dietetic Association. 2005; 105: 428-40.PMID: 15746832
  3. Anheller, JE; Hellgren, L .; Karlstam, B .; Vincent, J. Profilo biochimico e biologico di un nuovo preparato enzimatico da krill antartico (ad esempio Superba) adatto allo sbrigliamento delle lesioni ulcerative. Archivi di ricerca dermatologica 1989, 281, 105-110.
  4. Burri, Lena. Concentrato di olio di krill: il fattore fosfolipide che distingue olio di krill a parte 2017; 16-17
  5. Da Boit M, Mastalurova I, Brazaite G, McGovern N, Thompson K, Grey SR (2015) L'effetto del supplemento di olio di krill sulle prestazioni di allenamento e marker di funzione immunitaria. PLoS ONE 10 (9): e0139174. doi: 10.1371 / Journal. pone.0139174